Recorded history begins in the middle of the bronze age
The Bronze Age
2300 BCE - The demand for resurrection of the dead becomes part of the culture in Egypt - The Pyramid Texts are written. The pharaohs of Egypt write spells which they believe will resurrect them after their death. These spells are reserved for the kings. Over the next 800 years eventually ordinary people will be allowed access to these spells (written in the book of the dead) and be resurrected.
Pyramid of Unas
Book of the dead
2270 BCE - The first large empire of history is formed - Sargon of Akkad defeats the Sumerians. He has created the Akkadian empire uniting all of Mesopotamia
(Sargon had the same birth story as Cyrus, Oedipus, and Moses.)
Sargon the Great
2250 BCE - Religious books and hymns for-and-about the gods are first written - Enheduanna (the first poet of history) writes hymns for the goddess Innana and for the Sumerian temple of the city Ur (Southern Iraq). The earliest stories of Gilgamesh are written.
List of Ancient Literature
Epic of Gilgamesh
2194 BCE - The Chinese book the 'I Ching' begins to form as the 64 hexagrams are recorded.
2154 BCE - The Akkadian empire collapses due to climate change, civil-war, and war with Guitium and Canaan/Phoenicia.
2150 BCE - The flood myth is written - The stories says that Atra-hasis builds an ark after being told be the water god Ea that the world is going to flood. This story will be copied into the Epic of Gilgamesh and also the story of Noah in the Tanakh.
Sumerian creation myth
2000 BCE - The "Greek" Pantheon forms... in Turkey - The Hattians (Turkey) developed the religious characters (Teshub/Zeus) which will later be adopted by the Hittites and the Greeks.
1894 BCE - As people begin to move into large communities, the idea of city-gods flourishes and Babylon becomes the second dominant empire of western history - The Babylonian Empire (Iraq) becomes the new dominant empire. In this era each city often has its own god or deified founder. The city-god Marduk is the god of Babylonia. The Babylonians had developed advanced irrigation, astronomy, math, philosophy, and medicine. These technologies had allowed for a large population and military campaigns.
Dialogue of Pessimism
History of Agriculture
1800 BCE - The story of the prodigal son is first written - The story says that Sinhue must flee egypt. Sinhue becomes a lord in a foreign land. Years later Sinhue returns to Egypt and there he is welcomed by the king. This story will later be copied as the story of Joseph into the Tanakh.
1750 BCE - Divination develops as early food science and biology - The Babylonians and the Hittites (Turkey/Anatolia) develop animal autopsy (Haruspex/Extispicy). The Etruscans and later the Romans will pick up these practices. This practice of disease control in animal husbandry will become popularized and marketed as divination and omen reading.
1400 BCE - The Hurrians import the Vedic (Indian) gods Mitra and Varuna into Mesopotamia.
1330 BCE - The Egyptians write modern hymns to a monotheistic/henotheistic proto-Judiac sun god Aten - This style of hymn will latter be copied into the Tanakh.
Hymn to the Aten
1312 BCE - Judaism separates from the Canaanite religion - The beginning of the Tanakh. Four of the five books of moses (the Pentateuch/Torah) are composed. They will be finalized over the next 1000 years ending with Deuteronomy.
1200 BCE - The Phoenician(Canaanite) Empire spreads across the Mediterranean on warships as the Egyptian Empire declines. Cuneiform writing declines as the Phoenicians spread the phonetic alphabet. The religion of the god El and his children (Elohim) is spread across the Mediterranean.
The Phoenician Empire
1100 BCE - The proto-Hindu Vedas are composed into a formal catalogue of ritual and narrative.
1030 BCE - Israel with its city-god becomes a kingdom - Saul forms the United Monarchy of Israel. Yahweh becomes the official god of Israel, but the gods of the Phoenician empire (Asherah) continue to be worshipped. Saul anoints David king. David and Bathsheba have a son Solomon who becomes king. Solomon builds the first temple.
850 BCE - Homer writes the Iliad and the Odyssey.
753 BCE - Rome is founded - Romulus founds Rome and the ritual of augury. After the death and deification of Romulus, Rome elects Etruscan (Tuscan) and Sabine kings to head its government and religion. The next king, Numa Pompilius, will develop many religious institutions of Rome. Roman law was validated as an agreement between Numa Pompilius and Jupiter.
Kings of Rome
History of Rome
700 BCE - The story of the Greek Pantheon is written - Hesiod writes the Theogony. The book of Deuteronomy is written.
587 BCE - Israel is conquered and the Jews are enslaved in Babylonia - Nebuchadnezzar II (king of Babylon) conquers Judea. The first temple is destroyed. The Book of Kings is written. The Jews will be enslaved for a number of years in Babylon.
Siege of Jerusalem
The book of Kings
578 BCE - Servius Tullius becomes the first Roman king elected by popular vote. He invents the census.
563 BCE - Buddha is born
559 BCE - The Persian Empire becomes the third great empire of western history - Cyrus the great inherits the empire of Cambyses (Cyrus has the same childhood story as Sargon, Oedipus and Moses.) Cyrus makes a professional army of 10,000 soldiers (immortals/companions.) He led his Persian army from modern day Iran out across Mesopotamia to create a large Zoroastrian empire. Cyrus constructs a highway and a postal system and a bureaucratic governorship (satrap) to manage his empire. Xenophon, Herodotus, Isaiah, and Ezra write extensively about the life of Cyrus.
Cyrus the Great
539 BCE - Cyrus the great conquers Babylonia. Cyrus frees the slaves (because slavery is illegal under the Zoroastrian religion.) Cyrus is proclaimed the Messiah. Ezra leads the freed slaves to Israel. Cyrus rebuilds the temple at Jerusalem. (It's finished under Darius). There is not a king of Judea. The high priest becomes the most dominant social position in Judea.
Return to Zion
The Second Temple
High Priest's of Israel
535 BCE - The daughter of Servius Tullius and her husband Targuin Superbus (son of king Tarquinius Priscus) have her father Servius Tullius assassinated. Tarquin Superbus becomes king of Rome. Tarquin Superbus finishes the temple for Jupiter Optimus Maximus and the Capitoline Triad (promised by Tarquinius Priscus during his war with the Sabines.) Only the Patrician families can hold religious positions.
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
509 BCE - Rome becomes a Republic - The last Etruscan king of Rome, Tarquin Superbus, is exiled after a senatorial uprising led by Lucius Junius Brutus. Rome becomes a senatorial republican oligarchy. The social titles of Rome are significant because the Patrician and Equestrian families of the senate have to fund the military and the temples.
493 BCE - The building of the temple of Ceres and the Aventine Triad in Rome. The plebeian (agrarian) gods are formalized during an extended famine.
428 BCE - Plato is born. He will go on to formalize philosophy.
384 BCE - Aristotle is born. He will go on to formalize science.
336 BCE - Alexander the great (who was both the teen regent of Macedonia and a general) inherits the empire of his father Philip II after Philip is murdered. Philip had created a grand army, having learned the military tactics of the Phalanx and Cavalry while imprisoned in Thebes. This army would allow Alexander to conquer many civilizations and create a large Hellenic Empire.
Alexander the Great
Philip II of Macedon
334 BCE - Alexander conquers the Persian Empire. This will spread Hellenism across Mesopotamia.
312 BCE - Alexander dies in Babylon. The empire is taken over by his generals. The general Seleucus forms a new empire after a series of conflict for control of the empire.
Seleucus I Nicator
211 BCE - Hannibal, a military commander from Carthage (Tunisia), besieges Italy. Hannibal with his Numidian cavalry almost defeats Rome in the Punic/Phoenician wars. To divinely ward against defeat, the Roman Senate will next year import the goddess Cybele (from Phrygia/Turkey) after consulting the Sibylline books.
Second Punic War
175 BCE - In Jerusalem, the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes allows Jason to buy the position of high priest of Jerusalem. Jason builds a greek gymnasium. Under the Seleucid empire Jewish groups were becoming Hellenized and some of the people of Judea became opposed to circumcision and the laws of Moses. The Torah is unofficially translated into Greek and will be titled the Septuagint/LXX.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
172 BCE - Menelaus outbids Jason for the position of high priest of Jerusalem. Menelaus is made the high priest of Israel by king Antiochus.
167 BCE - Jason leads a revolt against Antiochus and the Seleucid empire, because Antiochus was rumored to have died in Egypt. Menelaus flees Jerusalem. Antiochus sacks Jerusalem and reinstates Menelaus as high priest. Antiochus outlaws Judaism and places Greek idols in the temple of Jerusalem. The book of Daniel is written.
History of Jerusalem
The book of Daniel
167 BCE - In Judea, The Maccabees revolt against the Seleucid empire.
161 BCE - The Maccabees defeat the Seleucid armies by using Gorilla warfare. This is the beginning of the Hasmonean dynasty in Judea, and a purging of Hellenic and Phoenician religious influence from Israel. Judaism becomes strictly monotheistic and the Jewish Schisms form: Pharisees (common Judaism), Sadducee (elite temple priests), Essene (anti-establishment communal ascetic priests.)
70 BCE - Hillel the Elder preaches for peace and the golden rule.
Hillel the Elder
63 BCE - Pompey Magnus conquers Judea during a Judean civil war between two brothers (Aristobulus II and Hycanus II). A son of one of the brothers, Antigonus II, survives.
49 BCE - Caesar crosses the Rubicon and takes Rome. Caesar goes to war against Pompey.
Julius Caesar's Roman civil war
47 BCE - Antipater, an Edomite (an area in southern Judea), helps Julius Caesar at Alexandria. Antipater is made chief minister (client king) of Judea. He was a Canaanite (Phoenician) and converted to Judaism along with his son, Herod the Great.
43 BCE - Caesar is murdered by the Senate of Rome after declaring himself dictator for life.
40 BCE - Antigonus II takes over Judea with the help of Parthian armies. He will be the last Hasmonean ruler of Judea.
39 BCE - In Judea, Marc Antony defeats Antigonus. Herod the Great (the son of Antipater) becomes king of Judea. The senate of Rome elects Herod King of the Jews.
Herod the Great
27 BCE - Augustus becomes first emperor of Rome. Augustus unifies the split religions of Rome the Aventine (plebeian) and the Capitaline (patrician) into the Imperial Cult.
6 CE - Judas of Galilee forms the Zealots sect to oppose Roman taxes in Judea.
32 CE - Herod Antipas (son of Herod the Great) marries the former wife of his brother.
Herod has to suppress a possible rebellion by John the Baptist (an Essene), who has a large following in Bethene.
Herod kills John the Baptist.
John the Baptist
33 CE - Jesus takes over the church/congregation/ministry of John.
Jesus is killed by the Romans, because Jesus took over the ministry of John, and Jesus declared himself King of the Jews and the heir to Israel (and enemy of Rome) in accordance with the messianic prophecy.
The Ministry of Jesus
33 CE - James the Just (the likely brother of Jesus) takes over the church congregation in Jerusalem.
Peter forms a church congregation in Rome. Peter will later be crucified by Nero.
36 CE - Paul founds Christianity. He argued to allow non-Jews to go to Jewish service and not be circumcised. His writing defined the rationale for the founding of gentile (non-Mosaic) churches. He made the religion generic and accessible for all people of imperial Rome. People could become Christian without following Mosaic law: circumcision, Passover, etc. Baptism replaces circumcision. The Eucharist replaces passover.
The Origins of the Eucharist
37 - 41 CE - Caligula becomes Emperor (with the death of Tiberius). Caligula is murdered. Claudius becomes emperor.
Herod Antipas is exiled to Gaul, and Claudius names Agrippa I (Grandson of Herod the Great) King of Judea.
49 CE - The Church of Alexandria is founded. Mark the Evangel becomes the first bishop.
Bishops of Alexandria
50 CE - The church decides in council that Gentiles do not need to be circumcised. They only have to follow the laws of Noah, the Noahide laws.
Council of Jerusalem
The laws of Noah
66 CE - First Jewish war - Roman Hooliganism in Caesarea causes the first Jewish Roman War. Josephus looses the war and surrenders, he is taken prisoner. He becomes a historian and a Roman citizen.
Jewish Roman War I
70 CE - Second Jewish war - Nero commits suicide after loosing political and military support.
The general Vespasian becomes emperor after Galba and Otho fail to secure the throne.
Titus continues the Jewish war. Titus eventually becomes the first Emperor under primogeniture after his father Vespasian dies.
Josephus tries to get the leaders of Judea to sign a peace treatise.
The Second Temple is destroyed in the sack of Jerusalem. Here begins the slow start of Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity.
The Second Temple
70 CE - Rome taxes the Jewish people for being Jewish, as a war tax. Christianity moves to separate itself from Judaism.
Roman Jewish Tax
Christian Judeo split
132 CE - Simon Bar Kokhba proclaims himself the messiah, the person who would restore Israel.
Hadrian was rumored to replace the ruins of the second temple with a temple for Jupiter.
Hadrian was to change the name of Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina.
Judea is renamed Syria Palaestina. Judaism is outlawed.
Simon Bar Kokhba rules Judea for two years until the emperor Hadrian defeats him.
Hadrian bans Jews (this includes Christians, because they are not seen as different under law) from Palestine.
The Christian sect did not support Simon Bar Kokhba, because they believed Jesus had fulfilled the prophecy of the messiah.
Simon Bar Kokhba Revolt
190 CE - Irenaeus canonizes the books of Christianity (He knew Polycarp, who knew John the Evangelist.)
John the Evangelist
Christian Biblical Canon
New Testament Canon
286 CE - Milan becomes the capital of the western empire. Nicomedia becomes the capital of the eastern empire.
303 CE - Diocletian persecutes the Parthian/Persian Manichaeans. Diocletian and Galerius Persecute the Christians.
312 CE - Constantine becomes the first Christian emperor. He takes the Christian symbol of Chi-Rho as his labarum. The imperial cult created by Augustus had lost its social and religious value. Constantine was an Arian Christian, non-trinitarian. Constantine upgrades the iconography of Jesus. Jesus is transformed into a majestic king at the basilica of Santa Pudenziana.
Constantine I and Christianity
The basilica of Santa Pudenziana
313 CE - Christianity is legally separated from Judaism. Christianity becomes legal.
Edict of Milan
325 CE - The council of Nicene formalizes Christian orthodoxy. (They make it illegal to kneel while praying, but do not canonize the books of the Christian Bible.)
First Council of Nicaea
The early Church
330 CE - Constantinople becomes the capital of the eastern empire.
374 CE - Ambrose, a Nicene Christian, becomes Bishop of Milan. He later reinforces Theodosius purging Hellenism and Judaism.
380 CE - Theodosius bans Hellenism. Theodosius has the many temples of the Hellenic/Etruscan gods destroyed.
Edict of Thessalonica
394 CE - The split of the empire after the death of Theodosius.
395 CE - The Huns attack the Goths and the Byzantine Empire.
402 CE - Ravenna becomes the capital of the western empire.
405 CE - Augustine accused Pelagius of having said that original sin (the cause of the human loss of divine grace) can be overcame with good acts. But this opens the questions, why did Jesus die, if we can save ourselves? People can still commit mortal sin to loose grace.
Note: Giving unfair wages is a sin. Charging interest rates is a sin.
De Doctrina Christiana
The reason for the Christian Religion, Grace
410 CE - Alaric, the Visigoth king who was a disgruntled mercenary general for the Roman Empire sacks Rome. Augustine has to defend the Church after the fall of Rome. The Roman people had seen the fall of Rome as the consequence of turning away from the old gods. Augustine says that the events in earthly life aren't important, only the afterlife in the city of god is important.
Sack of Rome
City of God against the Pagans
431 CE - The argument between Nestor and Cyril: The question of who were Jesus and his mother continues? Were they human or divine?
452 CE - Attila the Hun invades France and Italy, then leaves.
Attila the Hun
476 CE - The last western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus. As a child the last emperor is put on the throne by his rebel leader father (Oresetes, who had deposed of the emperor Julius Nepos.)
476 CE - Odoacer (an Arian Christian) becomes the barbarian king of Italy.
490 CE - Theodacer (an Arian Christian) conquers Italy.
568 CE - Alboin (the Arian Christian Lombard king) conquers Italy.
The Lombard kingdom
590 CE - Pope Gregory creates a mission to convert the British Isles to Christianity. Alms become popular but so does Church tourism in Rome and the market for fake relics.
Pope Gregory I
614 CE - Persians (Iranians) invade Palestine.
625 CE - The Eastern Roman Empire sacks Palestine.
630 CE - Muhammad conquers Mecca and founds the Islamic empire.
637 CE - The Islamic Empire (Arabia) invades Palestine.
768 CE - Charlemagne becomes king of the Franks.
800 CE - Charlemagne (a Roman Catholic) is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the bishop of Rome, Leo III, because a woman (Irene) was the Emperor at Constantinople. The bishop of Rome is trying to assume religious importance over the bishop of Constantinople. The bishop of Rome is attempting to legislate the churches importance over the line of kings by reestablishing the idea of the divine right to rule.
Holy Roman Emperor
Roman Catholic Church
Divine Right of Kings
Byzantine Isaurian Dynasty
936 CE - Otto (a German Roman Catholic Saxon king) is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII. The Holy Roman Empire will last until the Napoleonic wars.
Otto the Great
The Holy Roman Empire
1054 - The church splits into Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox - The great schism occurs. The bishop of Rome attempted to define orthodoxy. The simple difference between the Greek and Latin texts has become a problem. The Eastern Orthodox Church formally separates from the Church of Rome.
Primacy of the Bishop of Rome
East West Schism
Eastern Orthodox Christian theology
Eastern Orthodox Church
1245 - Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus modernize the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church.
Summa Theologica by Aquinas
1378 - Politics supersedes religion and the papacy splits.
1453 - Constantinople falls to the Ottomans. The Hagia Sophia becomes a mosque
1481 - Pope Julius II commissions numerous works of art during the renaissance including Michelangelo's work at the Sistine Chapel and Raphael's work at the Apostolic Palace. He commissioned St. Peter's Basilica be rebuilt. It will be the largest church in the world. People were allowed to pay for forgiveness of future sins with indulgences and pilgrimages(tourism.) These markets pay for the buildings and art. The grandeur and success of building Vatican City leads to the founding of non-Hellenic Germanic Protestant competition in the European religious market.
Pope Julius II
1510 - In Germany, Martin Luther argues against the papacy (its hellenic art and indulgences) and for the grace given by faith. The Protestant reformation is successful in the Germanic regions because it matches the non-Hellenic culture and these congregations need lower capital overhead to operate.
Smalcald Articles by Luther
1533 - In England, Thomas Cranmer defies Pope Clement VII. He grants Henry VIII a divorce. The Anglican church forms a few years later.
1540 - Ignatius of Loyola leads a reform of the Catholic Church. He founds the Jesuits. In competition with the Protestant reformation the Jesuits begin missionary work across the globe. The Hellenic Renaissance transforms into the Baroque era of art.
Ignatius of Loyola
1545 - The Council of Trent formalizes the Catholic reformation. The council will state the formal decrees of Catholic orthodoxy.
Council of Trent
1618 - Calvin and Arminius develop the ideological foundation of Protestantism.
Calvinist Arminian debate
Five articles of Remonstrance by Arminus
Institutes of the Christian Religion by Calvin
1689 - John Locke anonymously publishes the Second Treatises of Government. He argues for the right of the people to rebel against tyrant kings. He argues against the existence of the king's divine-right to rule that has been in place since Charlemagne and originally Numa Pompilius (to rebel against the king was seen as rebellion against god.)
Second Treatise of government
1776 - The United States declares independence from king George III and the British Empire.
US declares independence
1789 - George Washington becomes the first American president voted in by a republican democratic congress. Democracy ends the idea of the divine right to rule.
The Divine Right of kings
1792 - France becomes a democracy.
The French Revolution
1795 - Napoleon takes over the French Revolution. He will later declare himself emperor.
1803 - 1804 - The Napoleonic wars begin. Napoleon becomes Emperor of the French. Serbia rebels against the Ottoman Empire and becomes a separate principality.
Kingdom of Serbia
1806 - The Holy Roman Empire dissolves due to the Napoleonic wars. Francis II founds the Austrian Empire.
1914 - The Austria-Hungarian Empire tries to annex Serbia in a complex scenario. The Austria-Hungarian Empire attacks Serbia and the Russian Empire. Germany attacks France. WWI begins.
1918 - WWI ends. The Ottoman, the Russian, and the Austrian Empire dissolve. The rise of the secular nation state.
1939 - A failed art student tries to reboot the European Empire. Fails.
1960 - Television becomes one of the most important decision mechanisms in democracy. The television debates greatly decide the US presidential democratic elections. Television and its culture greatly affect the viewers in their judgment of the right to rule. Politics becomes focused on political brand, recognition, and charisma. Televised sports is made into a pseudo replacement for war and conquest. The Eagles defeat the Packers in the Super Bowl.
1960 US Election
20XX - Internet replaces TV and...